الاحتجاج اللغوي للقراءات القرآنية نشأته وتطوره عبر المراحل

Dr. Muhammad Qaseem

Abstract

Holy Quran is a guideline of Islam. Each Muslim related to different ethnicities, races, cultures and unlimited number of languages always recites it as his daily worship in his prayer or out of that. They study it and enjoy its colorful methods and make use of its meaning in their academic, cultural, political and civil affairs. To facilitate Quran recitation for Muslims, it has been sent in different ways of recitation. According to Muslim’s narrative, Muhammad (PBH) recitation is presented to us. He says: (إن هذا القرآن أنزل علی سبعة أحرف فاقراوا ما تیسر منه)

These ways and methods of Quranic recitation have been very cleverly and carefully heard from Muhammad (PBH) by his real friends. They have honestly preserved these methods and then have transferred them to new generations as safekeeping and have lasted to our time.Scholars have strictly researched Quranic recitation methods like other sciences and have assessed them on the basis of academic, literary, artistic and linguistic standards and have introduced those principles and criteria which comprise the scientific and linguistic base of the mentioned recitation methods under different titles in the course of time. As a whole the mentioned research has found its way to academic and cultural circles under the name of Rationalization of Quranic Recitation الاحتجاج للقراءات القرانیه

The seed of justification and rationalization for Quranic recitation had already been sowed by great associates of prophet Mohammad (PBH) such as Umul Momenin Ayesha, Hazrat Abubakir Sediq, Omar Farooq, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Hisham bin Alhakam, Abi bin Kab and Abdullah bin Abas in Yathreb at the beginning of civilization when the great leader of mankind Muhammad (PBH) was alive and moved to Yathreb on the request of local people and resided there to invite people to Islam properly. Authority of Islam religion was gradually spreading out. A great number of Arabs and non – Arabs such as Egyptian Belal, Roman Saheeb and Farsi Salman believed in monotheism gathered in Yathreb  and submitted just to the order of Allah in accordance with Quranic doctrine and proclaimed their absolute disagreement with invalid religions.

In this phase, (rationalization) for Quranic recitations originated only from hearing Muhammad’s (PBH) recitation. Each reciter insisted on this that he has learnt Quran recitation from the great leader of Islam Muhammad (PBH) on the way he was reciting. In case of disagreement between two sides, both sides preferred to present in front of Muhammad (PBH) and request him to settle their problem. Prophet Muhammad (PBH) himself put an end to their problem through approving their recitation.The cultivated and grown up seed became prepared to fruit when Muhammad (PBH) met his end in the 10th year of Hijra. He himself nurtured academic prophecy and left it as an inheritance to his real associates in order to find their ways for solving problems through their understanding in the light of Quran and Sunna and to settle their unsolved problems.Considering some subjective and objective conditions, these attempts were accelerated once more after the time of prophet’s associates and appeared in argument and research form and glittered parallel to the compilation of other parts of knowledge such as interpretation, ism, jurisprudence, syntax, morphology, dictionaries etc., and found its place beside the research of the issues related to the above mentioned parts of knowledge. The writers not only preserved this issue but they paid a special attention to it and in the process of researching other issues they investigated and explored it.This research appeared practically as an art when Haroon bin Musa Alor carried out research into Mutawater recitations and Shazza recitations and their related documents were discussed. Ibn Nadeem in his book Alfehrest says that Almobrad wrote a book called (Rationalization of Quranic Recitation) in third century of Hijra (899 A.D.) and then, the same book was written by another scholar Ibn Saraj in the fourth century of Hijra (929 A.D.).Similarly according to Ibn Nadeem, a book under the name of (Rationalization of Quranic Recitation) was written by Ibn Drestoya in (958 AD) and a book under the same title is attributed to Ibn Maqsam in (965 AD). Then, this process was followed by Hirawe Abo Monsoor Alazhari in (981 AD), Ibn Khaloya in (980 AD), Abu Ali Alfarsi in (987 AD), Ibn Janee in (987 AD) and Abu Zara in (1012 AD) and is still continuing and new researches are coming into existence in this area one after another.